The International Qajar Studies Association (IQSA) constitutes a palette, offering a rich variety of aspects of the study of the Qajar Era. The association organises conferences, study days, lectures, cultural events and exhibitions, publishes books, a Journal (Qajar Studies) and a regular newsletter, runs a Studies and Documentation Centre and brings together scholars from across the globe.
In the years leading up to the year 2000 several individuals were actively but separately looking for a vehicle for the study of the Qajar Era. Among these persons, were, in Europe: Ferydoun Barjesteh van Waalwijk van Doorn, Soltan Ali Mirza Kadjar, Hans Timmermans, Willem Vogelsang, Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood and Corien Vuurman, in the United States: Manoutchehr Eskandari-Qajar, Farhad Sepahbody and Majid Tehranian, and in Iran: Bahman Bayani, Mansoureh Ettehadieh and Bahman Farman Farmaian. In 2000 the International Qajar Studies Association was founded and registered by Ferydoun, Majid and Manoutchehr and this was supported by many other individuals., IQSA answered the need for a scholarly vehicle for the study of the Qajars and the Qajar era and the dissemination of information and research about the Qajar period that would otherwise not easily have come to light.
May 2000 saw the first meeting of IQSA at the premises of the publishing house (Nashr-e Tarikh-e Iran) of Dr. Mansoureh Ettehadieh on Khiaban Kakh in Tehran. Present were, among others: Soltan Ali Mirza Kadjar, Ezzat ol-Molouk (Pirnia-) Farman Farmaian, ... Amir Ebrahimi, Keyhan Malek Mansour, Dr. Kazemi, Bahman Bayani, Bahman Farman Farmaian, Bahram Farman Farmaian, Nahid Shams Ahmadi, Dr. Sahar Barjesteh van Waalwijk van Doorn-Khosrovani, Parisa Damandan, Mohammad Reza Tahmasbpour, Dr. Mansoureh Ettehadieh and Ferydoun Barjesteh van Waalwijk van Doorn.
Due to the efforts of Prof. Dr. Majid Tehranian an Advisory Board was formed with eminent scholars in the field. Manoutchehr and Ferydoun in the meen time, teamed up with Dr. Willem Vogelsang and his wife Dr. Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood to organise the first IQSA conference on May 17-19 2001. This inaugural conference ‘Reading early photographs: visual sources for the interpretation of Iranian Qajar history’ took place at the University of Leiden, the Netherlands and was jointly organised by the Department of Languages and Cultures of the Islamic Middle East, Leiden University; the International Qajar Studies Association (IQSA); the Research School of Asian, African, and Amerindian Studies, Leiden University and the Genootschap Nederland-Iran. Since then IQSA held many successful conferences at illustrious universities and institutes, both in Europe: Leiden University (2002), Cantonal Hospital and Mossadeq Institute, Geneva (2003), Corpus Christi College, Cambridge (2005), CNRS, Université Paris III (2006), with the Fondation Napoléon at the Bibliotheque Paul Marmottan (2007), the International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam, and CNWS, Leiden University (2008), the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (2009), St Antony’s College, Oxford (2010), the International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam, and the National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden (2011), University of St Andrews, Scotland (2011), the HAN University of Applied Sciences and Radboud University, Nijmegen (2013), the University of Heidelberg (2014), the Museum the Ursuline Convent – International Museum for Family History, Eijsden-Margraten (2015) and again in the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (2016), and in the United States (Santa Barbara City College (2004) and Boston University (2012).
At the 2015 conference at The Ursuline Convent the IQSA board decided to continue – henceforth – with annual Qajar Studies Days (lectures and workshops) on a fixed location (The Ursuline Convent) and with biyearly conferences.
Since 2000 IQSA published four books (Qajar Era Dress, Qajar Era Health, the Montabone Album, Nineteenth-century Persia in the Photographs of Abert Hotz) and twelve journals (Qajar Studies).
Constitution of the International Qajar Studies Association
Article I. Name
The official name of the Association in English shall be the International Qajar Studies Association (IQSA). In Farsi (Persian) the Association shall be known as Anjoman-e Beynolmelali-e Ghaadjaarshenassi.
Article II. Mission
The International Qajar Studies Association (IQSA) is a non-profit*, non-political, educational, cultural, and social association, whose aim is to be a forum for the exchange of views among scholars of the Qajar (Kadjar) era and members of the public at large, in order to ensure the survival of the contributions of the Qajars (Kadjars) and the Qajar (Kadjar) era for future generations.
In pursuance of this mission, the International Qajar Studies Association seeks to be a sponsor of research, publication and discussion of topics related to the Qajars (Kadjars) and the Qajar (Kadjar) era. To this end the International Qajar Studies Association sets itself the following goals or aims:
* A 501 (c) (3) non-profit public benefit corporation, incorporated June 19, 2001, under the laws of the State of California, and a 509 (a) (1) non-profit publicly supported organization under U.S. federal law on April 09, 2002.
Article III. Aims
The aims of the Association are to:
• Seek membership into its Association, by members of the academic community with interests in Qajar (Kadjar) studies and the Qajar (Kadjar) era; by members of the greater Qajar (Kadjar) family and individuals related to the Qajars (Kadjars); by individuals from the larger population with interests or sympathies towards the aims and mission of the International Qajar Studies Association.
• Encourage and foster research and publication of topics pertaining to the Qajar (Kadjar) era.
• Provide a forum for information on and discussion of topics pertaining to the Qajar (Kadjar) era.
• Solicit articles and research on the Qajar (Kadjar) era to be published in an annual Journal of the Association.
• Organize lectures, seminars, conferences, exhibits and cultural events on the Qajar (Kadjar) era.
• Engage in a Genealogy Project in order to establish a database on the various Qajar (Kadjar) families, both princely and non-princely.
• Establish an archive of Qajar (Kadjar) related documents; a collection of Qajar (Kadjar) paintings and photographs (or copies); a collection of Qajar (Kadjar) memorabilia; and a library of books and manuscripts related to the Qajars (Kadjars) and their time.
• Sponsor the publication of books and articles related to both its Genealogy Project and its Archive Project.
• Establish links with other like-minded associations, whose aims and mission correspond to those of this Association.
• Publish a semi-annual Newsletter for its membership.
• Raise funds, seek donations and endowments in pursuit of the above aims.
Article IV. Programs
The programs of the Association shall consist of:
• organization and sponsorship of conferences and exhibitions on the Qajar (Kadjar) era
• co-sponsorship, at regular intervals, of the International Gatherings of the Kadjar Family Association (KFA)
• publication of a Newsletter on the Association's activities
• sponsorship of research on matters related to the Qajar (Kadjar) era
• publication of a Journal of the Association, Qajar Studies, with topics of scholarly interest.
Article V. Membership and Membership Benefits
Individuals and institutions may join the Association as members or join as subscribers to the Qajar Studies, the Journal of the Association, only. At present, membership in the Association does not bestow voting privileges on any category of members, it only gives members additional benefits such as discounts to other publications of the Association and Association events such as exhibitions and conferences over subscribers. Membership in the Association is not meant to imply on the part of the members an automatic endorsement of all the policies and activities of the Association over time, nor is such endorsement required by the Association as a qualification for membership. Membership in the Association only implies a commitment of support of the activities of the Association for the duration of the membership, such as its publications, conferences and exhibitions, and a desire to benefit from the advantages membership in the Association bestows upon its members. For a full description of membership benefits please click here. Membership in the International Qajar Studies Association will be as follows:
1 Honorary Members
2 Founding Members
3 Life Members
4 Regular Members
5 Supporting Members
6 Friends of IQSA Members
7 Institutional Members
1. Honorary Membership is bestowed by the Association's Board of Directors, upon recommendation of the Chairman of the Board. Honorary membership is for life and honorary members are automatically considered life members of the Association with all the privileges associated with that category of membership. Honorary member status also entitles members to VIP status at the Association's events with the designation "VIP Member of the International Qajar Studies Association." 2. Founding Membership status is given to those members who were instrumental in the creation of the Association. All members of the first Board of Directors are automatically considered "Founding Members." Founding membership is for life and Founding Members are automatically considered life members of the Association with all the privileges associated with that category of membership. Founding member status also entitles members to VIP status at the Association's events with the designation "VIP Member of the International Qajar Studies Association." 3. Life Membership status can be requested through a donation of US $1,000 or more to the Association. Life membership entitles members to receive the Newsletter and Journal of the Association. Life membership also entitles members to VIP status at the Association's events with the designation ‘VIP Member of the International Qajar Studies Association.’ 4. Regular membership status is available on a yearly renewable basis. Regular membership entitles members to receive the Newsletter and the Journal of the Association. Regular membership also entitles members to attend the Association's events with the designation "Member of the International Qajar Studies Association." 5. Supporting Membership status is available on a yearly renewable basis. Supporting membership entitles members to receive the Newsletter and the Journal of the Association. Supporting membership also entitles members to attend the Association's events with the designation "Member of the International Qajar Studies Association." 6. Friends of IQSA Membership status is available on a yearly renewable basis. Friends of IQSA membership entitles members to receive the Newsletter and ten (10) copies of the Journal of the Association. Friends of IQSA membership also entitles members to attend the Association's events with the designation "Member of the International Qajar Studies Association." 7. Institutional membership status is available to universities, libraries and research institutions who wish to join the Association on a yearly renewable basis. Institutional membership entitles the institution to receive the Journal and the Newsletter of the Association. Institutional membership also entitles two representatives of the institution to attend the Association's events with the designation "Institutional Member of the International Qajar Studies Association."
Article VI. Organization
The Association shall be organized in geographical regions in order to facilitate membership access, payment of membership fees and the publication of its journal and newsletter. To this end, the Association shall have regional vice-presidents who will be in charge of the operations of the Association for their respective region. Currently the Association is organized in three regions: 1) Europe, 2) Africa, the Middle East and Asia, and 3) North America, South America and Oceania. It shall thus have one regional vice-president for Europe and one for Africa, the Middle East and Asia. The central office of the Association will be responsible for operations in North America, South America and Oceania and any other regions not currently assigned to one of the regional vice-presidents. Additional regions may be added as necessary by decision of the Board.
Article VII. Board of Directors
To enable it to carry out its mission and aims, the International Qajar Studies Association shall have a Board of Directors. The highest authority of the Association shall be this Board of Directors (hereinafter also referred to as "the Board"). The Board of Directors of the Association shall be composed of a Chairman of the Board, chosen by the Board by majority vote, and such a number of additional directors as its Articles of Incorporation and By-laws specify under the laws of the State of California. The Board of Directors shall appoint executive officers for the Association as follows: a president, a vice-president, regional vice-presidents, an executive secretary, a treasurer, an editor-in-chief in charge of publications, a chair of the advisory council, and other such members as the Board from time to time may deem necessary.
The Board shall be the governing body of the Association and shall have general charge and supervision of its business and interests in accordance with this Constitution, its Articles of Incorporation and its By-laws. The Board shall meet at least once a year, (physically or electronically), for its business meeting of the Association and more often at the discretion of a majority of Board members or of the Chairman of the Board. All decisions of the Board shall be made by vote. In these matters the Board shall decide by absolute majority. In all other matters the decisions of the Board shall be by whatever process the By-laws dictate for those cases. 2. The Board is an appointed (non-elective) organ of the Association. Members of the Board shall be chosen for five-year renewable terms. The first Board of the Association shall be self-appointed, and all Boards thereafter shall be chosen by the members of the current Board at that time. 3. The Board shall fill any vacancy in its membership by a majority vote of the remaining Board members. The new member(s) shall serve the remainder of the vacating member's term. 4. The Board may call special meetings of the Association. It may establish other offices, boards and committees, define their tasks and powers and fix their terms and methods of appointment, as the business of the Association may require. 5. The Board shall appoint officers to handle the day-to-day business of the Association according to the By-laws of the Association, which the Board shall promulgate and post in its official documents. 6. Removal of Directors from the Board of Directors, with or without cause, shall be effected with a two-thirds majority vote of all the members of the Board. The Director to be removed must recuse himself/herself from voting in that instance.
Article VIII. Executive Officers
The term of the Executive Officers of the Association shall be one year, renewable at each annual meeting of the Association. All Officers are chosen by the Board and serve at the pleasure of the Board. Removal of Officers, with or without cause, shall be effected with a two-thirds majority vote of all the members of the Board of Directors. If the Officer to be removed is also a Board of Directors member, then they must recuse themselves from voting in that instance. Executive Officers of the Association and their respective duties shall be as follows:
A. President. The President shall preside at all business meetings of the Association. He or she shall have general supervision of the affairs and property of the Association and over its several officers, and shall represent the Association in the public arena. Additionally he or she shall be in charge of the day-to-day business of the Association and have charge of the central office of the Association. He or she shall generally do and perform all acts incident to the office of President, and shall have such additional powers and duties as may from time to time be assigned to him or her by the Board. When authorized by the Board, the President may sign and execute, in the name of the Association, deeds, mortgages, bonds, contracts or other instruments authorized by the Board, except in cases where the signing and execution thereof shall be expressly delegated by the Board or by this Constitution, Articles of Incorporation or By-laws, to some other officer or agent of the Association. When authorized by the Board, the President shall play a key role in the planning and execution of any stand-alone Association conferences and shall be in charge of fundraising for the Association and of writing and submitting grant proposals to granting agencies and foundations, except in cases where such tasks shall be expressly delegated by the Board to some other officer or agent of the Association. The President takes office following the Annual Business Meeting.
B. Vice-president. The Vice-president, at the request of the President, or in the President's absence or disability, shall perform all the duties of the President subject to all the restrictions upon the President. When authorized by the Board, the Vice-president may also sign and execute, in the name of the Association, deeds, mortgages, bonds, contracts or other instruments authorized by the Board, except in cases where the signing and execution thereof shall be expressly delegated by the Board or by this Constitution, Articles of Incorporation or By-laws, to some other office or agent of the Association. The Vice-president shall perform such other duties as from time to time may be assigned to him or her by the Board or the President. The Vice-president's term begins after the Annual Business Meeting.
C. Regional Vice-presidents. Each regional Vice-president shall be in charge of carrying out the mission and aims of the Association in their respective region. In particular this will include membership matters, membership fees and duplication of the Newsletter and Journal of the Association for the benefit of the membership of that region. The regional Vice-presidents shall report to the Board on a regular basis on their activities. In case of disagreement on the appropriate course of action for each region, the Board, by majority vote, shall have final say on all decisions taken by the regional Vice-presidents.
D. Executive Secretary. The Executive Secretary shall be charged with the organization of the business meetings of the Association and shall be the keeper of its official minutes. The Secretary shall also be responsible for official correspondence of the Association in co-ordination with the President of the Association. He or she additionally shall assist the President in carrying out the duties of the office on a day-to-day basis. The Executive Secretary shall present a report of the minutes at each business meeting of the Association.
E. Treasurer. The Treasurer shall review and approve the arrangements for the receipt, custody and disbursement of the Association's funds, and for the keeping of the Association's accounts. The Treasurer shall arrange for the annual audit, and present the auditor's report to the Board. The Treasurer shall report the Association's financial condition to the Board at the annual business meeting and shall provide at that meeting a list of all contributions received during the year. The Treasurer shall review the Association's investment policy to the Board and shall seek to advance the interests of the Association by adding to its financial resources. The Treasurer shall present to the Board a written report on the Association's finances no less than once a year.
F. Editor-in-Chief. The Editor-in-Chief of the Association shall edit and publish its publication(s) with the advice and assistance of an Editorial Board. The Editorial Board shall be recruited by the Editor-in-Chief in consultation with the Board of Directors. The Editor-in-Chief shall report to the Board of Directors on the Association's publications at the Annual Business Meeting. The Editor-in-Chief shall present a written report on the publication schedule of the Association's Journal and Newsletter to the Board of Directors at least once a year.
G. Chair of Advisory Council. The Chair of the Advisory Council shall be responsible for recruiting prominent scholars and personalities in the field of Qajar Studies as advisors to the Association. The chair shall shall report to the Board on the advice and scholarly opinion of the Advisory Council. The Advisory Council shall also act as a resource for articles and publications for the Journal of the Association and for papers and presentations to be presented at conferences sponsored by the Association.
[Amemnded out as of June 10, 2011] H. Honorary Officers. The Association shall have an Honorary President.
The Honorary President may be present at all meetings of the Association and the Board and shall have advisory capacity with regard to the activities of the Association and the Board. Honorary Presidency is for life and is bestowed by the Board of Directors upon recommendation of the Chairman of the Board.
Honorary Presidency can be withdrawn, with or without cause, by the Board of Directors and this shall be effected with a two-thirds majority vote of all the members of the Board.
Article IX. Auxiliary Organs
The Executive Officers shall be assisted in their work by two Auxiliary Organs as follows:
1. Advisory Council. The Advisory Council shall be composed of a Chair of the Council and Members of the Advisory Council drawn from the international scholarly community with interests and expertise on the Qajar era. The Advisory Council will act as a resource for the Association in terms of the direction of its research and activities and as a pool for speakers at its conferences and writers of scholarly articles for its yearly Journal. The position of Chair of Advisory Council is an appointed position, by the Board of Directors, subject to the same terms and limitations as the other Executive Officers. Members of the Advisory Council are chosen by invitation only and are added to the Council upon acceptance of the invitation to join. Association with the Advisory Council can be terminated by request of the Member, by mutual agreement between the Member and the President of the Association, or by a two-thirds vote of the Board of Directors provided that the Chair of the Advisory Council be in agreement.
2. Editorial Board. The Editorial Board shall be composed of an Editor-in-Chief and such Members as the Editor-in-Chief in consultation with the Board of Directors may select. The Editorial Board will be responsible for the selection and publication of scholarly articles in the Association's Journal. The position of Editor-in-Chief is an appointed position, subject to the same terms and limitations as the other Executive Officers.
Article X. By-laws
This Association is bound in carrying out its business by its By-laws filed along with its Articles of Incorporation with the State of California on June 19, 2001. The By-laws and this Constitution form the legal basis for all the actions of this Association.
Article XI. Audits
There shall be an annual audit of the Association's accounts which shall be presented to the Board.
Article XII. Amendments
Amendments to the Constitution and By-laws shall be proposed by the Board and adopted by a two-thirds majority of the Board. Any group of Board members comprising a majority of the Board may propose amendments to the Constitution and By-laws of the Association. Such proposed amendments shall be referred to the Board for consideration, and the Board shall vote on them, with such changes as the majority of the Board may make.
Article XIII. Ratification and Adoption
This Constitution and the By-laws made in pursuance thereof, shall be considered properly adopted and binding upon the Association when adopted by two-thirds of the Board of Directors at the Board's first official meeting.
Article XIV. Emblem of the Association
The emblem of the Association shall consist of a Lion and Sun topped by the Qajar (Kadjar) crown with a banner at the bottom inscribed with the words "International Qajar Studies Association". No political message is intended or implied in the choice of this emblem. It was chosen solely for its universal association with things Qajar (Kadjar).
Article XV. Official Language
The official language of the Association shall be English. This refers specifically to the Constitution of the Association and to its other official and legally binding statements. However, translations will be made as necessary of the Constitution of the Association, its By-laws, its Membership form and other documents for greater accessibility in the various geographical regions the Association shall operate in. The English text of the Constitution of the Association, its By-laws and its Membership form shall, however, be the legal basis for all official Association business and shall be appended to all translations for reference.
Article XVI. Dissolution
Dissolution would be necessary if the Association is no more capable of carrying out its mission and/or its Board decides by a two-thirds majority vote that the Association be dissolved. In case of dissolution, the Association, by a majority vote of its Board, shall decide on how to dispose of its assets according to the laws governing the disposal of assets of not-for-profit institutions in the state and/or country in which the Association is incorporated.